The vast majority of the readers of Marketmanila.com have at least one credit card in their wallets. The objectives of the following series of posts on credit cards in the Philippines are simple. To help readers, acquaintances and the public in general understand the local credit card industry a little better. To highlight the unique risks associated with Philippine-issued credit cards. To remind the public of particular safeguards they should consider to reduce the risk of holding their credit cards. To explain some of the salient features of credit cards that people may wish to learn more about. To encourage our legislators to review the laws governing local credit cards to ensure a truly reasonable playing field that protects consumer’s rights, as well as those of banks and credit card companies. To encourage the public to educate themselves and seek fair laws that govern the credit card industry in the country. And to narrate several recent, specific credit card and banking service shortfalls that I have experienced and which are a useful tool to illustrate many of the objectives stated above.
The Philippine Credit Card Industry, a very quick (by my standards) overview.
What is glaringly obvious is the difficulty of obtaining readily available industry statistics for the Philippine credit card market. Industry groups such as credit card associations, local press, studies, central bank reports, etc. seem to have published (particularly on-line) far less than I used to typically see in other global markets when I used to work as a management consultant, several times engaged to study and fix credit card related issues. But here is a basic overview I managed to piece together, and my sources are listed at the bottom of the post. Some of the figures are extrapolated or estimated, but I think the overall general picture is reasonably accurate given the sources used. Corrections from those with better and more reliable information are most welcome.
How many credit cards in the Philippines?
As of December 2010, there were roughly 6.7 million credit cards issued in the Philippines, and several sources suggest those cards are held by roughly 3.6-4.0 million individuals (many folks have more than one card each). If I had to take an educated guess, I would say that roughly 2.5-3.0 million people have one credit card each, while roughly 1.0+ million people have multiple cards.
Who are the biggest players or issuers of credit cards?
This is actually rather difficult to determine, the most concrete data I could find dates back to 2004, so this is my best guess extrapolating out and given news reports.
Banco de Oro (BDO)
Bank of the Philippine Islands (BPI)
(Standard Chartered or AIG as the other possible top five players.)
Citibank probably has well over 1.3 million cards issued, while the top 5 in total probably account for 2/3 or more of all credit cards issued in the country. For Citibank and HSBC, the vast majority of their credit card customers probably DO NOT have deposit accounts with those banks.
Estimated Industry Growth – Cards Issued
2004: 4.5 Million cards issued
2007: 6.0-6.2 Million cards (roughly 11% annual growth 2004-2007)
2008: 6.5 Million cards
2010: 6.7 Million cards (roughly 3% annual growth 2007-2010)
So industry growth has slowed dramatically to 3% per annum from 2007-2010, from 11% in the previous 7 years, DESPITE robust economic growth during the last three years.
Roughly 4 million people have credit cards, and this represents a huge constituency of citizens, many of whom are gainfully employed, salaried workers and business owners, who are mostly all within the top 10% of the income brackets of the country (see my previous post on Philippine poverty and income levels, here), and who earn incomes and salaries and pay the vast majority of taxes collected by the government. They and their immediate families constitute a serious voting block in this country and should be able to push for positive reforms in credit card laws if necessary. Personally, it is my opinion that the market is close to saturation, not only because of the apparent slowdown in growth of cards, but because of the demographics and average incomes I wrote about in my previous post(s).
Estimated Industry Growth – Credit Card Receivables
2000: PHP40 Billion (estimate)
2001: PHP45 Billion (estimate)
2002: PHP50 Billion (estimate)
2003: PHP53 Billion (estimate)
2004: PHP65 Billion (estimate)
2005: PHP80 Billion (estimate)
2006: PHP99 Billion (estimate)
2007: PHP116 Billion (roughly 16.2% annual growth rate from 2000-2007)
2008: No data found
2009: PHP 128 Billion
2010: PHP 135 Billion (June 2010, roughly 6% annual growth rate 2007-2010)
Loans outstanding or credit card receivables of banks grew at a blistering pace of 16.2% from 2000-2007, but slowed dramatically to roughly 6% per annum 2008 to June 2010.
Average Outstandings Per Card (Estimated)
However, it seems a majority of cards DO NOT CARRY REVOLVING BALANCES. This is consistent with a recent survey I did. So if you assume that only 45% of all cards do revolving balances (based on a quoted figure from the Credit Card Association of the Philippines), then you could adjust the above figures to reflect that 55% of all cards have zero or close to zero balances on average, while the remaining 45% have these extrapolated estimated balances per card:
To me, this is a stunning piece of data. Roughly 3 million cards carry an average of PHP44,776 in revolving balances. And if you assume that some folks have two or more cards, then the average revolving balances for some 2 million folks in the country is roughly PHP60,000 or more per person, and I won’t even hazard a guess per couple/family! I will show later how these folks are paying some PHP25-35,000+ per annum in effective interest, penalties and fees! If that isn’t reason enough for citizens and lawmakers to sit up and at least educate themselves, I don’t know what is!
Past Due Credit Card Receivables (as a percentage of total receivables)
2010: 15.0% (June 2010)
Figures quoted from the press suggest that there are more than PHP18 Billion in past-due credit card receivables, or roughly 15% of total outstandings as of June 2010. Of these, probably more than half are well over 180 days in arrears, or the vast majority eventually going to be written-off the banks books. At least these figures are lower than those racked up in 2004, when nearly 1 out of every 4 pesos of loans were past-due.
All of these loans are probably charged not only the 3-3.5% monthly finance charge, but also another 6-7% late penalty or other similar fees. At roughly 10% per month or more than 210% compound annual interest, the chances of a debtor pulling themselves out of that debt trap are slim indeed. Let me simplify this for you. Let’s say you owe PHP100,000 on your credit card and due to a death in the family, emergency medical operation after being sideswipped by a bus or you were burglarized at home, hog-tied and all your worldly belongings stolen. You would miss your minimum payment for your credit card that month. And the credit card company would impose roughly 10% in interest and late charges. And let’s say you were not able to make several subsequent payments and everything kept compounding at 10% a month. Do you know how much you would owe the credit card company at the end of one year? A whopping PHP313,843 or thereabouts. Doesn’t that seem a bit excessive? Usurious? Absurd?
Technically, banks are supposed to classify debts overdue for more than six months as bad debts and provision against them to write them off, in practice, there may be ways to stretch that rule.
Dictionary definition of usury – “the practice of lending money and charging the borrower an exorbitant, excessive or illegally high interest rate.”
Other Interesting Pieces of the Philippine Credit Card Story
“The rate of consumer credit defaults in the Philippines is almost TRIPLE the average in Asia” (Malaya, 2008)
“The credit card interest rates in the Philippines are currently amongst the HIGHEST in the world…in effect, good borrowers are shouldering a significant portion of the premium on bad debts since, given the lack of credit data that would permit lenders to determine the quality of borrowers, high interest rates are levied on ALL credit card debt.” (Winecito L Tan, BSP in his paper entitled “Consumer Credit in the Philippines”)
Below, a very interesting graph that compares the composition of household debt across 11 Asian countries in 2008. One of the most glaring conclusions is that the Philippines has the highest percentage (@28%) of all household debt in the form of unsecured credit card loans, and lowest percentage of housing loans among all countries in the study. This is probably one reason that the growth in credit card exposure has slowed dramatically in the last 3 years.
Graph is from Household Indebtedness and its implications for financial stability, a paper by Don Narkornthab, Bank of Thailand.
This is the first of a series of several posts on credit cards in the Philippines. There are 6.7 million cards issued for roughly 4.0 million people. Most of these people fall into the top 10% of the income levels for the Philippine population. There are roughly PHP135 Billion in credit card receivables. I figure that roughly 2 million people could have upwards of PHP60,000 in average revolving balances on their credit cards every month, and are paying upwards of PHP30-40,000 in interest rates, late payment fees, and other fees per capita per annum. Some 15% of all outstandings are past due, down from historical highs above 20% several years ago. Interest rates of 3-3.5% per month are the equivalent of 51+% per year compounded, and when you add in penalties and other fees, could rise to as high as 200+% per year. Credit card fraud and defaults are very high in the Philippines (suggesting banks should choose their clients more wisely), interest rates are amongst the highest in the world, and household debt in the Philippines relies VERY HEAVILY on unsecured credit card debt.
Stay tuned for more in this series in the days ahead. Do me a great big favor and let your friends, colleagues and family know about this series of posts. Over the next month, on a normal basis, this post will get 15-20,000 page views from marketmanila.com regulars and casual visitors. But this is a topic that should interest anyone who holds a Philippine credit card, and thus it would be good if the maximum number of people were aware of this series of posts. If all of you posted this on your facebooks, tweeted about it, copied the posts and added them to your own blogs or websites, then there is a pretty good chance that 150-200,000 people will get to see it. Who knows, they might just learn something useful and avoid getting into credit trouble or know how to better assert their rights as a consumer as a result of reading a few posts. If you know any newspaper columnists, writers, newscasters, broadcasters, who can help to bring further awareness to these issues, I would be more than happy to share as much as I know about the topic with them if that can help the public at large. Thank you.
Consumer Credit in the Philippines, 2008 Winecito L. Tan, BSP (A Paper prepared for a speech at the Bank for International Settlements
Issues on Revenue Recognition Practices of Selected Philippine Credit Card Companies, 2004 Erlinda S Echanis, Professor of Accounting & Finance, University of the Philippines
Household Indebtedness and Its Implications for Financial Stability, 2008 Don Nakornthab, Bank of Thailand
BSP Adopts same collection practices for all consumer loans, 2011 Lee C. Chipiongan, Philippine Development Finance
Credit Card Holders Cry Out For Reforms, 2009 Ramon J. Farolan, Philippine Daily Inquirer
Stanchart sees slower credit card growth, 2008 Gerard S dela Pena, Businessworld
Credit card receivables up 4.9% to PHP136 Billion in first half, 2010 Lawrence Agcaoili, The Philippines Star
Card Companies: Use credit wisely, 2010 Jarius Bondoc, The Philippine Star
Interested in reading the rest of the series? Click here: